The overall rating for creatine monohydrate is 2 out of 3 meaning there is some evidence that this supplement does some (not all) of what it claims. Using this supplement may lead to some improvements.

What is creatine?

Creatine is one of the most popular supplements available on the market with sales estimated at $400 million annually. This popularity comes for a good reason; creatine is one of the few supplements that consistently demonstrates its effectiveness in a high number of research articles. Read More

Table of Contents

  1. Articles
  2. Simple Report
  3. Detailed Report
  4. Overall Effectiveness Rating
  5. Research Rating
  6. Products Containing Creatine Monohydrate
  7. Claim Ratings
  8. Dosing
  9. The Bottom Line
  10. References

Articles

Creatine Monohydrate Simple Report

  • Supplement: Creatine Monohydrate
  • Supplement Category: creatine
  • Number of Products Containing Creatine Monohydrate: 194
  • Effectiveness Rating: 2 out of 3
  • Research Rating: 113 (above 80 indicates sufficient research)
  • Number of Studies: 60
  • Number of Claims: 20
  • Effective Dosage Range: 2 - 30 grams per day

Creatine Monohydrate Detailed Report

Overall Effectiveness Rating

The overall effectiveness rating for creatine monohydrate is 2 out of 3. This rating means the evidence is mixed on the supplement's ability to deliver positive results. While some of the research supports its use, other evidence does not. Using this supplement may lead to positive results. Note, this effectiveness rating is for creatine monohydrate as a whole; there are also individual ratings for the claims below.

Read more: What is the effectiveness rating?

Research Rating for Creatine Monohydrate

There are 60 studies in the database on creatine monohydrate; the research rating is 113. A score above 80 means the effectiveness rating for this supplement is reliable. A score under 80 means there is insufficient evidence to ensure a reliable effectiveness rating. Note, this research rating is for creatine monohydrate as a whole; there are also individual ratings for the claims below.

Read more: What is the research rating?

Products Containing Creatine Monohydrate

Products Names Amount of Creatine Monohydrate
K9 White Pre-Workout 1g
Materia 5g
Psychotic Amount not listed.
Creapure 4.9g
ATP48 1.2g
Full list of all 194 products containing Creatine Monohydrate.

Claim Ratings

The overall ratings above are an average of the individual claim ratings below. Individual claims may have higher or lower ratings compared to the supplement's overall rating. For example, some supplements may have excellent backing for one claim, but be completely useless for another. Click on a claim below for more information.

Body Composition (weight, muscle, body fat) Claims Effectiveness Rating Research Rating
decrease body fat
increase muscle mass

Protein Synthesis Claims Effectiveness Rating Research Rating
increase protein synthesis

Performance Claims Effectiveness Rating Research Rating
improve cardiovascular endurance
improve high-intensity interval training (HIIT) performance
improve muscular endurance
improve rowing performance
improve running performance
improve sports performance
improve sprint performance
improve swimming performance
decrease fatigue
increase strength
improve cycling sprint performance

Recovery Claims Effectiveness Rating Research Rating
improve recovery
reduce muscle damage
reduce muscle soreness

Mental Health Claims Effectiveness Rating Research Rating
improve cognitive ability
improve memory
improve mood

Dosing

The Supplement Database includes 58 studies on creatine monohydrate dosing. These studies indicate an effective dose ranges from 2 to 30 grams per day, the average dose being 12.1 grams per day. For a more detailed dosing analysis visit: Supplement Dosing for Creatine Monohydrate.

The Bottom Line

Creatine is a somewhat rare supplement in that there is plenty of evidence that backs its use. It improves strength, enhances recovery, and increases muscle mass. It does not however, work on every activity. The evidence on creatine use to improve aerobic activity, high intensity exercise, sprints, and decrease body fat is at best, mixed.

There are various forms of creatine on the market. Creatine monohydrate is the cheapest, easiest to get, most widely studied, and arguably, most effective. Other forms are much more expensive and largely untested.

Effective creatine doses range from 2 to 30 grams per day. When using this supplement, start with a smaller dose as it may be just as effective as larger doses. Creatine can cause unwanted weight gain and gastrointestinal discomfort; avoid taking it right before exercise. Creatine has been shown to be safe and effective for upwards of five years; cycling it on and off is not necessary. Read full article: Is creatine worth taking?

References

Title of Study
A buffered form of creatine does not promote greater changes in muscle creatine content, body composition, or training adaptations than creatine monohydrate
Acute creatine supplementation and performance during a field test simulating match play in elite female soccer players
Combined effect of creatine monohydrate or creatine hydrochloride and caffeine supplementation in runners’performance and body composition
Creatine but not betaine supplementation increases muscle phosphorylcreatine content and strength performance
Creatine HCl and Creatine Monohydrate Improve Strength but Only Creatine HCl Induced Changes on Body Composition in Recreational Weightlifters
Creatine Monohydrate Supplementation Does Not Augment Fitness, Performance, or Body Composition Adaptations in Response to Four Weeks of High-Intensity Interval Training in Young Females
Creatine monohydrate supplementation enhances high-intensity exercise performance in males and females
Creatine monohydrate supplementation on lower-limb muscle power in Brazilian elite soccer players
Creatine supplementation and sprint performance in soccer players
Creatine supplementation and the total work performed during 15-s and 1-min bouts of maximal cycling
Creatine supplementation does not improve physical performance in a 150 m race
Creatine supplementation does not reduce muscle damage or enhance recovery from resistance exercise
Creatine supplementation enhances isometric strength and body composition improvements following strength exercise training in older adults
Creatine supplementation enhances muscle force recovery after eccentrically-induced muscle damage in healthy individuals
Creatine supplementation improves the anaerobic performance of elite junior fin swimmers
Creatine supplementation in endurance sports
Creatine supplementation in young soccer players
Creatine Supplementation Supports the Rehabilitation of Adolescent Fin Swimmers in Tendon Overuse Injury Cases
Creatine supplementation, sleep deprivation, cortisol, melatonin and behavior
Creatine-electrolyte supplementation improves repeated sprint cycling performance: A double blind randomized control study
Effect of caffeine ingestion after creatine supplementation on intermittent high-intensity sprint performance
Effect of creatine loading on long-term sprint exercise performance and metabolism
Effect of creatine supplementation on aerobic performance and anaerobic capacity in elite rowers in the course of endurance training
Effect of creatine supplementation on jumping performance in elite volleyball players
Effect of creatine supplementation on metabolism and performance in humans during intermittent sprint cycling
Effect of creatine supplementation on muscle damage and repair following eccentrically-induced damage to the elbow flexor muscles
Effect of creatine supplementation on sprint exercise performance and muscle metabolism
Effect of low dose, short-term creatine supplementation on muscle power output in elite youth soccer players
Effects of 4-Week Creatine Supplementation Combined with Complex Training on Muscle Damage and Sport Performance
Effects of Coffee and Caffeine Anhydrous Intake During Creatine Loading
Effects of creatine loading and prolonged creatine supplementation on body composition, fuel selection, sprint and endurance performance in humans
Effects of creatine loading on muscular strength and endurance of female softball players
Effects of creatine monohydrate supplementation during combined strength and high intensity rowing training on performance
Effects of creatine monohydrate supplementation on simulated soccer performance
Effects of creatine on isometric bench-press performance in resistance-trained humans
Effects of Creatine Supplementation on Athletic Performance and Body Composition after Complex Training
Effects of creatine supplementation on body composition, strength, and sprint performance
Effects of creatine supplementation on isometric force-time curve characteristics
Effects of creatine supplementation on muscle power, endurance, and sprint performance
Effects of creatine supplementation on the onset of neuromuscular fatigue threshold and muscle strength in elderly men and women (64 - 86 years)
Effects of high dose oral creatine supplementation on anaerobic capacity of elite wrestlers
Effects of oral creatine loading on single and repeated maximal short sprints
Effects of plyometric training and creatine supplementation on maximal-intensity exercise and endurance in female soccer players
Effects of Whey Isolate, Creatine, and Resistance Training on Muscle Hypertrophy
Is Long Term Creatine and Glutamine Supplementation Effective in Enhancing Physical Performance of Military Police Officers?
Low dose creatine supplementation enhances sprint phase of 400 meters swimming performance
Mg2+-creatine chelate and a low-dose creatine supplementation regimen improve exercise performance
Oral creatine supplementation augments the repeated bout effect
Pre-exercise oral creatine ingestion does not improve prolonged intermittent sprint exercise in humans
Short and longer-term effects of creatine supplementation on exercise induced muscle damage
Short-term creatine supplementation does not improve muscle activation or sprint performance in humans
Short-term creatine supplementation has no impact on upper-body anaerobic power in trained wrestlers
The effect of whey protein supplementation with and without creatine monohydrate combined with resistance training on lean tissue mass and muscle strength
The effects of creatine ethyl ester supplementation combined with heavy resistance training on body composition, muscle performance, and serum and muscle creatine levels
The Effects of Creatine Monohydrate and Creatine Hydrochloride Supplementation on Power in Trained Individuals
The effects of creatine monohydrate loading on anaerobic performance and one-repetition maximum strength
The effects of creatine monohydrate supplementation with and without D-pinitol on resistance training adaptations
The effects of creatine supplementation on exercise-induced muscle damage
The Effects of Creatine Supplementation on Explosive Performance and Optimal Individual Postactivation Potentiation Time
The effects of creatine supplementation on performance during the repeated bouts of supramaximal exercise